autonomia del politico

Posted: Febbraio 27th, 2013 | Author: | Filed under: 99%, comune, Marx oltre Marx, postoperaismo, Révolution | 20 Comments »

Una crisi italiana. Alla radice della teoria dell’autonomia del politico



La questione dell’“autonomia del politico” esplode in Italia nel corso degli anni Settanta e rientra nel dibattito se attribuire il primato o all’organizzazione o all’autonomia, e cioè o al luogo del conflitto (Tronti, Cacciari) o alla soggettività antagonista (Negri). Tuttavia, ciò che queste posizioni hanno in comune è il fatto di poter essere comprese all’interno di un dispositivo della crisi.

1. Dentro e contro: Tronti

Per limitare la questione dell’“autonomia del politico” nella tradizione filosofico-politica italiana a tre autori (Mario Tronti, Antonio Negri e Massimo Cacciari) e a un arco di tempo determinato (gli anni Settanta), prendo lo spunto iniziale da Operai e capitale. Mi riferisco in particolare al punto in cui Tronti passa dall’analisi operaista del rapporto economico classe operaia-capitale alla proposta politica. Innanzitutto, egli prende criticamente le distanze – anzi rovescia – il paradigma gramsciano (fatto proprio a suo modo da Togliatti) per la conquista dell’egemonia politica da parte della classe operaia: il passaggio politico da compiere non è tanto quello dalla classe operaia al popolo, ma, viceversa, dal popolo alla classe operaia. Lo scopo è quello di definire l’organizzazione politica operaia, il partito di parte operaia. Tronti scrive:

“Come far funzionare il popolo dentro la classe operaia è problema tuttora reale della rivoluzione in Italia. Non certo per conquistare la maggioranza democratica nel parlamento borghese, ma per costruire un blocco politico di forze sociali, da usare come leva materiale per far saltare una per una e poi tutte insieme le connessioni interne del potere politico avversario […]. Così, su questa base, dai compiti del partito rimane escluso proprio quello che sembra averlo finora caratterizzato: il compito di mediare i rapporti tra classi affini, e cioè tra ceti diversi, con tutte le loro ideologie, in un sistema di alleanze.”[1]


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